General Officer Assignments2013

For the Canadian composer, see Bruce Carlson (composer).

Bruce Allen Carlson (born October 3, 1949), was the 16th Director of the National Reconnaissance Office. He is a former four-star general in the United States Air Force and served as the sixth Commander, Air Force Materiel Command, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio. The command conducts research, development, test and evaluation, and provides acquisition management services and logistics support necessary to keep Air Force weapon systems ready for war. After over 37 years of service, he retired from the Air Force on January 1, 2009. Carlson served as a general authority and a member of the Second Quorum of the Seventy of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church) from April 2009 to October 2015.


Carlson was born in Hibbing, Minnesota in 1949.[1] He was commissioned in 1971 after completing the University of Minnesota Duluth's Air Force ROTC program as a distinguished graduate. He has held various assignments in flying units. Staff assignments have included positions at Tactical Air Command, Headquarters U.S. Air Force, the offices of the Secretary of the Air Force and Secretary of Defense, and as the Director of Force Structure, Resources and Assessment with the Joint Staff. Additionally, he commanded the Air Force's 49th Fighter Wing at Holloman AFB, New Mexico Prior to assuming his current position, Carlson served as the Commander, 8th Air Force, Barksdale AFB, Louisiana, and Joint Functional Component Commander for Space and Global Strike, U.S. Strategic Command, Offutt AFB, Nebraska

Carlson is experienced in multiple aircraft weapons systems, is a command pilot with more than 3,000 flying hours, and has combat experience in the OV-10.

In April 2009, Carlson was called as a general authority and a member of the LDS Church's Second Quorum of the Seventy.

In June 2009, he was appointed by President Barack Obama as Director of the U.S. National Reconnaissance Office, an agency that operates the nation's reconnaissance satellites.

On April 18, 2012, Carlson announced his resignation as director of the NRO, effective July 20, 2012.[2]

LDS Church service[edit]

Prior to his call as a general authority in April 2009, Carlson served in the church as an elders quorum president, young men president, bishop, high councilor, and an adviser to the church’s Military Advisory Committee.[3]

Carlson served as one of two area supervisors of the church's Middle East/Africa North Area from 2012 to 2015.[4][5][6] Carlson also served as an Assistant Executive Director of the church's Temple Department.[7] During the church's October 2015 general conference, Carlson was released from the seventy and designated an emeritus general authority.[8]


  • 1971 Bachelor of Arts degree, University of Minnesota Duluth
  • 1979 U.S. Air Force Fighter Weapons School, Nellis AFB, Nevada
  • 1980 Master of Arts degree, Webster University, St. Louis, Missouri
  • 1989 Distinguished graduate, Master of Arts degree, Naval War College, Newport, Rhode Island


  • June 1971 - May 1972, student, undergraduate pilot training, Vance AFB, Oklahoma
  • June 1972 - April 1973, student, F-4 Replacement Training Unit, Homestead AFB, Florida
  • May 1973 - December 1974, F-4 pilot, 417th Tactical Fighter Squadron, Holloman AFB, New Mexico
  • December 1974 - October 1975, OV-10 forward air controller and instructor pilot, 23rd Tactical Air Support Squadron, Nakhon Phanom Royal Thai Air Force Base, Thailand
  • October 1975 - November 1977, OV-10 instructor pilot and flight examiner, 23rd Tactical Air Support Squadron, Bergstrom AFB, Texas
  • December 1977 - April 1980, A-10 pilot and fighter weapons instructor pilot, 355th Tactical Fighter Squadron, Myrtle Beach AFB, South Carolina
  • May 1980 - September 1982, aide to the Commander, Headquarters Tactical Air Command, Langley AFB, Virginia
  • October 1982 - June 1985, wing weapons officer, 363rd Tactical Fighter Wing, and operations officer, 17th Tactical Fighter Squadron, Shaw AFB, South Carolina
  • July 1985 - June 1988, tactical systems requirements officer, Office of Low Observables Technology, Office of the Secretary of the Air Force, Washington, D.C.
  • July 1988 - June 1989, graduate student, Naval War College, Newport, R.I.
  • July 1989 - June 1991, Director of Advanced Programs, Headquarters TAC, Langley AFB, Virginia
  • July 1991 - June 1993, Vice Commander, 366th Wing, Mountain Home AFB, Idaho
  • July 1993 - February 1995, senior military assistant to the Undersecretary of Defense for Acquisition, and senior military assistant to the Deputy Secretary of Defense, Office of the Secretary of Defense, Washington, D.C.
  • February 1995 - November 1996, Commander, 49th Fighter Wing, Holloman AFB, New Mexico
  • November 1996 - June 1998, Director of Global Power Programs, Office of the Assistant Secretary of the Air Force for Acquisition, Headquarters U.S. Air Force, Washington, D.C.
  • June 1998 - December 1999, Director of Operational Requirements, Deputy Chief of Staff for Air and Space Operations, Headquarters U.S. Air Force, Washington, D.C.
  • January 2000 - May 2002, Director for Force Structure, Resources and Assessment (J-8), the Joint Staff, Washington, D.C.
  • May 2002 - April 2005, Commander, 8th Air Force, Barksdale AFB, Louisiana
  • April 2005 - August 2005, Commander, 8th Air Force, Barksdale AFB, Louisiana, and Joint Functional Component Commander for Space and Global Strike, U.S. Strategic Command, Offutt AFB, Nebraska
  • August 2005 - January 2009, Commander, Air Force Materiel Command, Wright-Patterson AFMC, Ohio

Flight information[edit]

  • Rating: Command pilot
  • Flight hours: More than 3,000
  • Aircraft flown: F-4, OV-10, A-10, F-16, F-111, EF-111, AT-38, F-117 and B-52

Awards and decorations[edit]

Promotion dates[edit]

  • Second Lieutenant: June 12, 1971
  • First Lieutenant: December 12, 1972
  • Captain: June 12, 1975
  • Major: November 1, 1982
  • Lieutenant Colonel: March 1, 1985
  • Colonel: February 1, 1991
  • Brigadier General: January 1, 1996
  • Major General: September 1, 1998
  • Lieutenant General: February 1, 2000
  • General: September 1, 2005


External links[edit]

General Bruce A. Carlson, USAF
Commander, Air Force Materiel Command
  1. ^"General Authorities: Elder Bruce A. Carlson". The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. 
  2. ^Risen, James (19 April 2012). "A Military and Intelligence Clash Over Spy Satellites". The New York Times.  
  3. ^“Elder Bruce A. Carlson,” Liahona (The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints), May 2009, p. 138.
  4. ^"Area Leadership Assignments, 2012", Church News (The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints), 5 May 2012.
  5. ^"Area Leadership Assignments, 2013", Church News (The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints), 25 May 2013.
  6. ^"Area Leadership Assignments, 2014", Church News (The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints), 3 May 2014.
  7. ^"Temple Presidents, Matrons are counseled in annual seminar", Church News (The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints), 19 October 2013. Retrieved 5 May 2014.
  8. ^"Releases Announced at October 2015 General Conference", Newsroom, LDS Church 

During World War II, 73 officers of the United States Army Medical Department were promoted to General Officer. All are listed below with their dates of rank, most notable duty assignment during the war, and their status as of late 1946. Notes also provide other notable achievements as well as any special commemorative actions taken by the United States Army to recognize their service.[1]

ImageRankNameDate of RankStatus in
December 1946
Major GeneralJames C. Magee000000001939-06-01-0000June 1, 1939Retired 1943Surgeon General of the Army[2]
Major GeneralNorman T. Kirk000000001943-06-01-0000June 1, 1943Surgeon General of the ArmyNamesake of Kirk United States Army Health Clinic (formerly hospital), Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland
Major GeneralShelley U. Marietta000000001943-09-13-0000September 13, 1943Retired 1946Commander of The Army Medical Center
Major GeneralRobert H. Mills000000001943-09-17-0000September 17, 1943Retired 1946Chief, Army Dental Corps; Namesake of Mills Dental Clinic, Fort Dix, New Jersey
Major GeneralDavid N. W. Grant000000001943-09-19-0000September 19, 1943Retired 1946The Air Surgeon; Namesake of David Grant USAF Medical Center, Travis Air Force Base, California
Major GeneralAlbert W. Kenner000000001943-09-23-0000September 23, 1943Office of the Secretary of WarChief Surgeon, Supreme Headquarters, Allied Expeditionary Force from February 1944;[3] Namesake of Kenner Army Health Clinic (formerly hospital), Fort Lee, Virginia
Major GeneralGeorge F. Lull000000001943-09-24-0000September 24, 1943Retired 1945Deputy Surgeon General
Major GeneralHoward McCrum Snyder000000001943-11-03-0000November 3, 1943Retired 1945Assistant to the Inspector General of the Army; later personal physician to President Dwight David Eisenhower
Major GeneralMorrison C. Stayer000000001943-11-03-0000November 3, 1943Retired 1946Chief Surgeon Caribbean Command; Chief Surgeon, North African Theater of Operations; Chief of Public Health & Welfare Officer Allied Military Government Germany[4]
Major GeneralGeorge C. Dunham000000001944-02-22-0000February 22, 1944Retired 1945Author of Textbook of Military Preventive Medicine; Director of Health & Sanitation Division, Institute of Inter-American Affairs; Namesake of Dunham Army Health Clinic, Carlisle Barracks, Pennsylvania [5]
Major GeneralPaul R. Hawley000000001944-02-27-0000February 27, 1944Retired 1946Chief Surgeon, European Theater of Operations; Later Chief Medical Officer, United States Veterans' Administration; Namesake of Hawley Army Community Hospital (closed 1995), Fort Benjamin Harrison, Indiana
Brigadier GeneralWallace DeWitt, Sr.000000001936-10-02-0000October 2, 1936Relieved from active duty February 28, 1945;[6]Retired June 30, 1942 and recalled to active duty on July 1, 1942;[6] Namesake of DeWitt Army Community Hospital (closed 2011), Fort Belvoir, Virginia
Brigadier GeneralRaymond F. Metcalfe000000001937-12-15-0000December 15, 1937Relieved from Active Duty 1946Retired May 31, 1941[7] and recalled to active duty on December 15, 1941[6]
Brigadier GeneralLeigh C. Fairbanks000000001938-01-29-0000January 29, 1938Retired 1942First General officer in Dental Corps and Chief, Dental Corps;[8] Namesake of Fairbanks Dental Clinic, Fort Hood, Texas
Brigadier GeneralWilliam L. Sheep000000001940-10-01-0000October 1, 1940Retired 1945Commanding General, Lawson General Hospital, Atlanta, Georgia[9]
Brigadier GeneralAddison D. Davis000000001940-12-19-0000December 19, 1940Retired 1946Commandant, Medical Field Service School, Carlisle Barracks, Pennsylvania[10]
Brigadier GeneralLarry B. McAfee000000001941-03-01-0000March 1, 1941Retired 1946Executive Officer to the Surgeon General; Assistant Surgeon General; Commanding General, Bruns General Hospital, Santa Fe, New Mexico
Brigadier GeneralHenry C. Pillsbury000000001941-04-03-0000April 3, 1941Retired May 31, 1945Commanding General, Lovell General Hospital, Fort Devens, Massachusetts[11]
Brigadier GeneralHenry C. Coburn, Jr.000000001941-04-03-0000April 3, 1941Relieved from Active Duty, 1945Retired 1943; recalled to active duty; Surgeon, Fort Bragg Station Hospital[12]
Brigadier GeneralWilliam R. Dear000000001941-04-04-0000April 4, 1941Retired 1946Commanding General, Medical Replacement Training Center, Camp Lee Virginia; Commanding General, Medical Replacement Training Center, Camp Pickett, Virginia (same unit, relocated from Camp Lee to Camp Pickett due to space issues);[13] Commanding General, Northington General Hospital, Tuscaloosa, Alabama[14]
Brigadier GeneralJohn M. Willis000000001941-04-05-0000April 5, 1941Commanding General, Brooke Army Medical CenterCommand Surgeon, United States Army Pacific Ocean Areas;[3] Namesake of Willis Hall, United States Army Medical Department Center and School, Fort Sam Houston, Texas
Brigadier GeneralRoy C. Heflebower000000001941-12-15-0000December 15, 1941Retired 1946Commander, Medical Replacement Training Center, Camp Barkeley, Texas[15]
Brigadier GeneralCharles C. Hillman000000001942-01-29-0000January 29, 1942Commanding General, Letterman General HospitalChief of Professional Service Division, Office of the Surgeon General[16]
Brigadier GeneralJames E. Baylis000000001942-02-13-0000February 13, 1942Command Surgeon, Seventh United States ArmyCommand Surgeon, India-Burma Theater[17]
Brigadier GeneralRaymond A. Kesler000000001942-03-09-0000March 9, 1942Retired 1946Chief, Veterinary Corps
Brigadier GeneralRoyal Reynolds000000001942-03-20-0000March 20, 1942Retired 1945Commanding General, Kennedy General Hospital, Memphis, Tennessee;[11] Brother of Charles R. Reynolds, former Surgeon General of the Army from 1935 to 1939 [18]
Brigadier GeneralOmar H. Quade000000001942-05-21-0000May 21, 1942Commanding General, Fitzsimmons General HospitalCommanding General, Fitzsimmons General Hospital[11]
Brigadier GeneralFrank W. Weed000000001942-07-19-0000July 19, 1942Retired April 30, 1945; Died September 29, 1945[19]Commanding General, Letterman General Hospital, Presidio of San Francisco, California;[11] Namesake of Weed Army Community Hospital, Fort Irwin, California[20]
Brigadier GeneralEdgar King000000001942-10-25-0000October 25, 1942Retired 1946Command Surgeon, United States Army Forces, Central Pacific
Brigadier GeneralFrederick A. Blesse000000001942-12-04-0000December 4, 1942Command Surgeon, Army Ground Forces, Fort Monroe, VirginiaCommand Surgeon, Fifth United States Army[17] Namesake of Blesse Auditorium, United States Army Medical Department Center and School, Fort Sam Houston, Texas
Brigadier GeneralEugen G. Reinartz000000001942-12-04-0000December 4, 1942Retired 1946Commandant, School of Aviation Medicine, Randolph Field, Texas[21]
Brigadier GeneralHugh J. Morgan000000001942-12-04-0000December 4, 1942Relieved from Active Duty 1946Mobilized reservist; Chief consultant in Medicine, Office of the Surgeon General[22]
Brigadier GeneralFred W. Rankin000000001942-12-05-0000December 5, 1942Relieved from Active Duty 1945Mobilized reservist; Chief Consultant in Surgery, Office of the Surgeon General[22]
Brigadier GeneralJames S. Simmons000000001943-03-14-0000March 14, 1943Retired 1946Mobilized Reservist; Chief, Preventive Medicine Division, Office of the Surgeon General[11]
Brigadier GeneralLeon A. Fox000000001943-03-16-0000March 16, 1943Retired 1946United States of America Typhus Commission[23]
Brigadier GeneralRalph H. Goldthwaite000000001943-04-25-0000April 25, 1943Retired 1946Commanding General, Army and Navy General Hospital, Hot Springs, Arkansas[11]
Brigadier GeneralGeorge C. Beach, Jr.000000001943-04-26-0000April 26, 1943Commanding General, The Army Medical CenterCommanding General, Brooke Army Medical Center, Fort Sam Houston, Texas
Brigadier GeneralJoseph E. Bastion000000001943-06-23-0000June 23, 1943Commanding General, Percy Jones General Hospital, Battle Creek, MichiganCommanding General, Percy Jones General Hospital, Battle Creek, Michigan [11]
Brigadier GeneralPercy J. Carroll000000001943-06-23-0000June 23, 1943Retired 1946Command Surgeon, United States Army Forces in Australia; Command Surgeon, United States Army Forces in the Southwest Pacific; Commanding General, Vaughn General Hospital, Hines, Illinois [24][25]
Brigadier GeneralRaymond W. Bliss000000001943-09-13-0000September 13, 1943Deputy Surgeon GeneralChief of Operations, Office of the Surgeon General; Surgeon General of the Army, 1947–1951; namesake of Raymond W. Bliss Army Health Center (former hospital), Fort Hauchuca, Arizona
Brigadier GeneralCharles R. Glenn000000001943-09-17-0000September 17, 1943Air Materiel Command Surgeon, Wright Field, OhioArmy Air Forces Training Command Surgeon; Deputy Air Surgeon[26]
Brigadier GeneralMalcolm C. Grow000000001943-09-17-0000September 17, 1943The Air SurgeonFirst Surgeon General of the United States Air Force; namesake of Malcolm Grow Medical Clinic (formerly medical center), Joint Base Andrews, Camp Spring, Maryland
Brigadier GeneralJames A. Bethea000000001943-11-03-0000November 3, 1943Chief Surgeon, Far East CommandCommanding General, McCloskey General Hospital, Temple, Texas[27]
Brigadier GeneralEdgar Erskine Hume000000001944-01-14-0000January 14, 1944Civil Affairs, AustriaCommanding Officer, Winter General Hospital, Topeka, Kansas[11]
Brigadier GeneralJoseph I. Martin000000001944-01-17-0000January 17, 1944Brooke Army Medical CenterCommand Surgeon, Fifth United States Army; namesake of Martin Army Community Hospital, Fort Benning, Georgia
Brigadier GeneralGuy Blair Denit000000001944-01-18-0000January 18, 1944Office of the Surgeon GeneralChief Surgeon, United States Army Services of Supply, Southwest Pacific Area; Chief Surgeon, United States Army Forces Far East[28]
Brigadier GeneralEarl Maxwell000000001944-01-19-0000January 19, 1944Chief, Eye, Ear, Nose, and Throat Service, Letterman General Hospital, Presidio of San Francisco, CaliforniaChief Surgeon, United States Army Forces, Pacific; Commanding General, 332nd Hospital Center, Okinawa; Chief Surgeon, United States Army Service Command, Yokohama[29]
Brigadier GeneralStanhope Bayne-Jones000000001944-02-25-0000February 25, 1944Relieved from active duty, 1946Mobilized reservist; administrator for the United States Typhus Commission and the Army Epidemiology Board;[30] Member of the 1964 Surgeon General's Advisory Committee on Smoking and Health; Namesake of Bayne-Jones Army Community Hospital, Fort Polk, Louisiana
Brigadier GeneralCondon C. McCornack000000001944-05-31-0000May 31, 1944Died 000000001944-11-05-0000November 5, 1944Deputy Command Surgeon, Western Defense Command; namesake of McCornack General Hospital (closed 1949), Pasadena, California[31]
Brigadier GeneralGeorge B. Foster, Jr.000000001944-05-24-0000May 24, 1944Retired 1946Commanding General, O'Reilly General Hospital, Springfield, Missouri [11]
Brigadier GeneralRalph G. DeVoe000000001944-05-24-0000May 24, 1944Retired 1946Commanding Officer, Halloran General Hospital, Willowbrook, Staten Island, New York[11]
Brigadier GeneralHenry C. Dooling000000001944-05-25-0000May 25, 1944Chief Health Officer, Canal ZoneAssistant Chief Health Officer, Canal Zone[11]
Brigadier GeneralJohn A. Rogers000000001944-11-10-0000November 10, 1944Retired 1946Command Surgeon, First United States Army
Brigadier GeneralRobert C. McDonald000000001945-01-01-0000January 1, 1945Relieved from active duty 1946Retired 1945; recalled to active duty; namesake of McDonald Army Health Clinic (former hospital), Fort Eustis, Virginia
Brigadier GeneralWilliam A. Hagins000000001945-01-04-0000January 4, 1945Surgeon, Sixth United States ArmyCommand Surgeon, Sixth United States Army
Brigadier GeneralRex McKinley McDowell000000001945-01-04-0000January 4, 1945Headquarters, Sixth United States Army, Presidio of San Francisco, CaliforniaDental Corps Officer, Deputy Chief, Dental Division, Office of the Surgeon General[32]
Brigadier GeneralCharles B. Spruit000000001945-01-08-0000January 8, 1945Retired 1946Deputy Command Surgeon, United States Army European Theater of Operations[33]
Brigadier GeneralW. Lee Hart000000001945-03-16-0000March 16, 1945Relieved from active duty 1946Retired 1945; Command Surgeon, Eighth Service Command[34]
Brigadier GeneralGeorge R. Callender000000001945-03-16-0000March 16, 1945Retired 1946Commandant, Army Medical School, Washington, D.C.[35]
Brigadier GeneralThomas D. Hurley000000001945-03-20-0000March 20, 1945Retired 1946Chief Surgeon, Third United States Army
Brigadier GeneralIsidor S. Radvin000000001945-03-31-0000March 31, 1945Relieved from Active Duty 1946Mobilized reservist; Commanding Officer, 20th General Hospital, India[36]
Brigadier GeneralCharles M. Walson000000001945-06-03-0000June 3, 1945Command Surgeon, First United States Army, Governors Island, New YorkSurgeon, Second Service Command; namesake of Walson Army Community Hospital, Fort Dix, New Jersey (closed 1995)
Brigadier GeneralGeorge W. Rice000000001945-06-05-0000June 5, 1945Command Surgeon, Second United States Army, Baltimore, MarylandCommand Surgeon, Eighth United States Army
Brigadier GeneralElliot C. Cutler000000001945-06-17-0000June 17, 1945Relieved from Active Duty 1946Mobilized Reserve Officer; Chief surgical consultant to the Command surgeon, European Theater of Operations
Brigadier GeneralEdward Reynolds000000001945-06-17-0000June 17, 1945Retired 1946Chief, Medical Administrative Corps[37]
Brigadier GeneralSidney L. Chappell000000001945-09-05-0000September 5, 1945Retired 1946Commanding Officer, England General Hospital, Atlantic City, New Jersey[38]
Brigadier GeneralRobert M. Hardaway000000001945-09-05-0000September 5, 1945Commanding General Percy Jones Hospital CenterCommanding Officer, Bushnell General Hospital, Brigham City, Utah[11]
Brigadier GeneralEdward A. Noyes000000001945-09-06-0000September 6, 1945Chief Surgeon, European TheaterCommanding General, Cushing General Hospital, Framingham, Massachusetts[39]
Brigadier GeneralClyde McKay Beck000000001945-09-05-0000September 5, 1945Commanding General, Pratt General Hospital, Miami, FloridaCommanding Officer, Ashford General Hospital, White Sulfur Springs, West Virginia[11]
Brigadier GeneralWilliam C. Menninger000000001945-09-10-0000September 10, 1945Relieved from Active Duty 1946Director, Neuropsychiatry Consultants Division, Office of The Surgeon General[22]
Brigadier GeneralWilliam W. Vaughan000000001945-10-24-0000October 24, 1945Retired 1946Commanding General, Stark General Hospital, Charleston, South Carolina[11]
Brigadier GeneralThomas L. Smith000000001946-03-17-0000March 17, 1946Office of the Surgeon GeneralTenth Chief of the Dental Corps, advanced to Major General in 1947[40]
Brigadier GeneralWallace H. Graham000000001946-09-14-0000September 14, 1946Attending physician to the PresidentChief Surgeon, 97th Evacuation Hospital


 This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the United States Department of Defense.

  1. ^General Officers of the Army Medical Department, in The Army Medical Bulletin, volume VI, number 6, (December 1946) [1]
  2. ^
  3. ^ ab
  4. ^
  5. ^"Biography of Major-General George Clark Dunham (1887 – 1954), USA". Retrieved 2016-07-13. 
  6. ^ abc"Official army register for .. : United States. Adjutant General : Free Download & Streaming : Internet Archive". Retrieved 2016-07-13. 
  7. ^"Personnel notes [July 1941] :: Army Medical Bulletin, 1922-1949". Retrieved 2016-07-13. 
  8. ^"Leigh C. Fairbank, Brigadier General, Medical Department (Dental Corps) :: Dental Bulletin". Retrieved 2016-07-13. 
  9. ^"The fourth reconditioning conference :: Army Medical Bulletin, 1922-1949". Retrieved 2016-07-13. 
  10. ^"Largest class at Carlisle Barracks :: Army Medical Bulletin, 1922-1949". Retrieved 2016-07-13. 
  11. ^ abcdefghijklmnOfficial Register of the United States, USGPO, 1943
  12. ^"Download Mozilla Firefox Optimized for Yahoo". Retrieved 2016-07-13. 
  13. ^
  14. ^
  15. ^"Camp Barkeley". Archived from the original on 2010-04-15. Retrieved 2016-07-13. 
  16. ^
  17. ^ ab"Office of Medical History". Retrieved 2016-07-13. 
  18. ^
  19. ^A Concise Biography of Brigadier General Frank Watkins Weed, MC Prepared by Mr. Samuel Kier, US Army Medical Department Historical Unit, February 1964. Copy in the holdings of the AMEDD Center for History and Heritage, Fort Sam Houston, TX
  20. ^
  21. ^
  22. ^ abc
  23. ^"Historical Expeditions / Department of Botany, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution". Retrieved 2016-07-13. 
  24. ^"Australian War Memorial". Retrieved 2016-07-13. 
  25. ^
  26. ^
  27. ^
  28. ^
  29. ^

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