History Of Torture Essay

Medieval Torture

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Torture is defined as in law, infliction of severe bodily pain either as punishment, or to force a person to confess to a crime, or to give evidence in a judicial proceeding. In the middle of ancient people torture has been used as a means of suffering and to punish captured enemies. It involves using instruments to force evidence from unwilling witnesses.
In ancient Athens, slaves were always examined by torture, and for this reason their evidence was actually considered more valuable than a freemen. A free Athenian could not be examined by this method but torture may have been used rarely in executing criminals. Under the Roman Republic only slaves could be legally tortured and as a general rule they could not be tortured to begin the responsibility of their master. A lot of methods were used to torture people. And I am going to introduce all the methods possible.
In medieval times punishment was often as cruel as the crimes. The people, who tortured sinners, used such a method called breaking with the wheel, the head crusher, or even the guillotine. The sinners would sometimes get hung. The rope that went around the sinners’ neck was called the noose. They hung sinners in gallows. They also used a hanging cage. They also made sinners sit in spiked chairs. The Iron Maiden was an example of one of these. Pressing was one of the tortures they used. Breaking with the wheel was another torture. Finger pillories and thumb cuffs were used. Although the whip left marks, it wasn’t as brutal. People often got whipped 15 to 20 times. They removed body parts quite a lot. The guillotine was used to remove heads. The headsman’s sword did the same thing as the guillotine. They also used a saw to remove arms, legs, and so many other body parts. The rack was used to stretch people out. It was the most popular instrument. They beat people to death and burnt people at the stake. They also used the head crusher.
Now I will tell you how these methods were used. They hung people by putting their head through a rope, then taking the floor out from under them. In the hanging cage, they locked someone in a cage and just either let them die of hunger, or rot. The spiked chairs were just chairs full of spikes that you were locked in until you speak up.

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The iron maiden would be opened up and they would put the criminal inside. The person would then be embraced by the iron maiden, being impaled by all the spikes. One of the most common means of execution was breaking with wheel. They would put wooden crosspieces under the limbs of the victim and the executioner then smashed the wheel into the bone between and onto the blocks themselves, also smashing the shoulders and hips avoiding fatal blows. Water has been used in many different ways throughout history to torture victims.
The most popular method is to use water as a means of drowning. The fear of suffocation inspires a fright. The act of having someone's head immersed in water fills the victim with panic. So many kinds of torture methods were used, methods that you won't even imagine how they were used. Women back then were tortured so badly. They had some of their body parts cut off. Some of the victims were burnt at the stake alive. Different types of torture were used depending on the victim's crime and social status. There were also different tortures used according to the customs of each country. Every country had its own types of tortures. People shouldn't be treated like that no matter how bad they or what type of crime they did. We are human being and not animals so why should we be treated like that. I hope that we all have equal and be treated fairly.


above."Torture Lite" is defined as methods of interrogation which fall short of actualtorture, through the Geneva Convention makes no division between torture and socalled "torture lite."Torture lite focuses more on messing with a persons head rather thanapplication of brute force on the person or persons body until they divulge theinformation. while leavening no physical marks torture lite still leads to furtherpsychological problems down the road. Some of the methods classified undertorture lite is sleep deprivation, exposure to heat/cold, use of drugs to causeconfusion, rough treatment such as, Slapping, shoving, shaking, forcing a prisonerto stand for days at a time, or sit in a uncomfortable position. Another used ishumiliation, such as placing woman's underwear on detainies heads, or playing onthe detainies fears, such as use of dogs, or playing Heavy metal music at a highvolume. First one we will talk about is sleep deprivation. In this detainies arekept awake for days at a time and then allowed to sleep, but before the areallowed to sleep they are interrogated. Without adequate rest, brain Function willdeteriorate, Decision making is diminished, Ability to handle stress is lessened,the brains ability to think in general deteriorates causing the brain to try tocompensate for the lack of sleep. Extended sleep deprivation can lead to manyhealth issues such as: depression, heart disease,hypertension, irritability, slower reaction times, spurred speech as well as,tremors.The next "lite Torture" Method will be drugs. Also called "Truth Serum" Thereare many different types of drugs used interrogation.Scopolamine - which appered early this century, along with morphine as well as,chloroform. It was used during child birth as a constituent of henbane, it wasknown to produce drowsiness, disorientation, in coordination, as well as amnesia.During its use doctors reported that women in the so called "twilight sleepanswered questions accurately, "volunteering exceedingly candid remarks"In 1922 a doctor by the name of Robert House, came up with the idea of the use ofthe drug in the interrogation of suspected criminals. He arranged to ingerogatetwo prisoners held in the Dallas County jail. The guilt of the criminals wasassumed obvious, through under the influence of the drug, both men denied thecharges of which they were heald. Upon trial they both prisoners were found notguilty. With this success, House concluded that a patient under the influence ofthe drug, in his own words, "cannot create a lie. . . and there is no power tothink or reason." He gained wide recognition and, the idea of a "truth drug" wasthus brought to the publics attention. There were only a small handful of caseswere the use of scopolamine wasbrought to the publics attention, through there is extensive evidence suggestingpolice used it extensively. Though there is proof of its effectiveness there aresome still harmful side effects among which are hallucinations, disturbedperception, somnolence, physiological phenomena such as headache, rapid heart, aswell as blurred vision which distract the subject from the purpose of theinterrogation. In addition, the physical action is far out lasting thepsychological effects. Scopolomine, in a few cases, actually makes surgery saferby drying the mouth and throat , and reducing secretions which may block airpassages. But the effect is thought of as a little too drastic.The Barbiturates - The advent of barbituets as a interogation method came byaccident in 1916 Arthur S. Lovenhart along with his associates of the Universityof Wisconsin. Lovenhart were experimenting with respiratory stimulants, they weresuprised when an injection of sodium cyanide to a catatonic patient who was muteand rigid, suddenly relaxed, opened his eyes, as well as answered questions. Anumber of doctors, experimented with the drug along with other established formsof therapy.While this attracted many doctors it also attracted many police officials,with the possibility of using it as an interrogation method for suspects and

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