The Windows operating system is a case in point. According to Gary McGraw, chief technology officer at the software consultant Cigital, the 2000 version of Windows had 20 million lines of source code. XP, released in 2001, had 40 million -- a doubling in less than two years. Critics of such complexity have offered myriad solutions. Writing about the ''threshold of frustration,'' Bill Buxton, a former chief scientist at the graphics software maker Alias who now runs a consulting firm, called for engineers to focus less on technology and more on who, what, when, where, why -- that is, how it's being used. He promotes the idea of information appliances, or machines tailored to a specific task, rather than general-use PC's. Others have criticized the industry for an obsession with beauty and technology at the expense of user-centered design.
Dr. Maeda says the solution is not better design or better technology but a better partnership between the two. Hence the Simplicity Design Workshop, which could leverage the lab's understanding of emerging technologies and the real-world experience of the designers into a series of concrete, well tested principles.
In January Mr. Moggridge of Ideo met with a Media Lab group led by Cynthia Breazeal, an assistant professor of media arts and sciences, to try to define simplicity. It was easy to embrace the concept, with its connotations of beauty and elegance and its promise of a better way, but what did it mean in practical terms?
They considered examples of simplicity: the iPod for its minimalist form and intuitive interface; Google for its straightforward, no-fuss approach to searching; the Screwpull wine-bottle opener for its mechanical elegance; Apple Keynote (rival to PowerPoint) for its subtle pop-up indicators that help you align and position elements like a pro. (Not to mention the Citroën 2CV for its, well, social engineering: a high roof to accommodate the hats of French farmers, and other details that helped the car blend seamlessly into its drivers' lives.)
The brainstorm suggested crucial elements: transparency, aesthetic appeal, restraint, just-in-time information. ''We started with the big picture: what does simplicity mean in the context of our work?'' said Dr. Breazeal, a pioneer of social robotics whose current project is building a learning companion robot called RoCo. ''But the real value is to see how Bill approaches the problem of design.''
''Our interaction with Bill introduced us to alternative techniques,'' she said. ''For instance, he shared Ideo's brainstorming cards, which will be a wonderful tool for thinking about how to incorporate human-interaction issues into the early stages of design.''
In a second collaboration, Mr. Gelman of Design Machine teamed up with a group developing OpenAtelier, a Web-based collection of software tools for drawing, painting, photography, video and text-editing. Specifically, he designed a series of interfaces that, through simple changes in the size of the icons or in the use of boxes to delineate options, were geared toward different users: adults, children, the elderly.
The principle seemed to be macro-personalization -- the equivalent of this newspaper's special Large Type Weekly edition for the sight-impaired -- rather than the micro-personalization offered by a My Yahoo page. It's easy to see the potential for, say, type-enlarged TurboTax forms for aging boomers.
From the first year's efforts, some tenets of simplicity have emerged:
1.Heed cultural patterns. The iPod, for instance, succeeded not just because of its sleek form, but because, in conjunction with iTunes, it solved so many of the problems of buying and storing music.
2.Be transparent. People like to have a mental model of how things work.
3.Edit. Simplicity hinges as much on cutting nonessential features as on adding helpful ones, the Newton MessagePad and the Palm Pilot being prime examples.
4.Prototype. Push beyond proof-of-technology demos and build prototypes that people can interact with.
Beyond principles, the project seems to have coalesced around specific emerging technologies that promise to be the pillars of simplicity. The first is visualization and the need for tools to display complex information in a meaningful way.
''Think of the sophistication of interacting with today's video games compared to working with an Excel spreadsheet,'' Dr. Maeda says. ''We need to bring dynamic, immersive, engaging visuals to a whole range of information-display problems, from handling messages in your e-mail in-box to mapping the genome.''
Another important research area is ambient intelligence. Wi-Fi, radio-frequency identification, and other wireless developments will allow people to obtain and transmit digital information through ordinary objects and surfaces. The mouse and keyboard won't be our only bridge to the digital world.
A third arm of research focuses on making computers smarter. One method, a new branch of artificial intelligence, aims to give computers common sense in the form of a vast database of mundane truths about the world (the sky is blue, coffee wakes you up). A second approach, affective computing, gathers information about the state of the user through a range of sensors, enabling the computer to adapt by, say, holding delivery of all but high-priority e-mail when it detects stress.
As the first year of the workshop ends, the most obvious conclusion is that it has barely scratched the surface. With every Consumer Electronics Show, we seem to wade deeper into the ''paradox of the digital age,'' in the words of the computer scientist and design critic Donald Norman: the very technologies that we hope will simplify life ultimately complicate it. But there is hope. As Mr. Moggridge says, ''Technology is the villain, as well as the exciting opportunity.''Continue reading the main story
Epiphany is a big event in the history of Christianity. Everything that was going on with the Christ was very significant. In this Epiphany Essay Ideaswe will explain the principle of epiphany in general. This term has many meanings. It is very interesting to talk about something that has more than one idea and can be considered differently. The word “epiphany” may mean a big Christian holiday which concerns the revealing of Jesus to people. Also, this word means a sudden and great revelation or realization. Let us look at these two sides. Be sure that our term paper writing service has made it very entertaining.
Let us first start from Christian holiday. It has a good background which is based on the events mentioned in the Bible. Christianity has a very long history. It is the most influential religion in the world. We do not have an intention to make you a Christian. However, if you would like to know how to become one, we can explain it in our next paper. So, epiphany is the synonym of the word revelation. What happened in Israel long ago and what exactly Gentiles saw or understood? Professional service to write essay for you and everyone who needs has prepared an unusual paper which explains complicated things.
Have you heard about Jesus Christ? This is He who revealed Himself to people and because of Whom the holiday exists. If you know nothing about this personality, we can explain little His story.
1. According to the Bible Jesus exists from the very beginning. He was involved into the process of creating the world. In the book of Genesis such words are written, “Let Us create”. The word “Us” means that not only one personality was engaged. Christians assert that Jesus is the creator. If you would like to receive an essay on this topic, just say, “Make my essay for money.”
2. In all the books of Old Testament prophets are saying about the coming of Jesus. Moses calls Him a prophet. Micah writes that Jesus is the Ruler. For these reasons, Hebrews were expecting someone who had to become the King of Israel.
3. Jesus was born in Bethlehem as the Scripture told. However, He did not live there. This fact confused many people. They did not believe in Him. Jesus was also rejected by His family and the citizens of His native village. In case someone has a paper on the service of Jesus Christ, we can offer cheap checking essay for errors service.
4. His task was to preach to Jews. All in all, He traveled through the all country and its suburbs. Jesus drove out demons and healed many people. A huge crowd of people followed Him all the time.
5. Jesus had many disciples and 12 apostles. Mother Teresa was one of the most prominent followers of Jesus in the last century. Mother Teresa essay will tell you about this amazing woman.
Teachers of the law and Pharisees did not consider Him a prophet. They envied Jesus because He accepted poor and sinful people. In almost every preaching Jesus called Pharisees hypocrites. He claimed that they would not enter the house of God.
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6. Christ was betrayed by His disciple on the third year of His service. He was crucified. His followers believed that Jesus had come for ruling on the Earth. Disciples were watching the moment to govern with Him. Jesus convinced them that He had come to save the world but soon He would come to judge it.
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Christians who celebrate Epiphany do it on the 6th of January. They devote this day to the representing of Jesus to the Magi. When the Christ was born, amazing things happened. Not everyone understood what happened and most people were not aware of this event. Even though the traditional understanding of Epiphany means discovery of the Magi, some Christians think about it differently. There was a particular order of events and people who realized that saw Christ.
1. Shepherds were informed by the angel of God that the Christ was born. The men rushed to the Bethlehem. There in a stable they found a woman with the newborn child.
2. The Bible says about one person whose name was Simeon. The God’s hand was upon him. He was a righteous man. According to the Moses’ Law all newborns had to be presented to the Lord. Simeon came to the temple when little Jesus was brought by His parents there. When Simeon saw Jesus, he took Him and praised the Lord for His salvation which was hidden in Jesus.
3. The moment of revelation also happened when the prophetess Anna stood in the temple. Seeing Jesus, she claimed that He had come for atonement of Israel.
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All these stories are talking about one event – epiphany. So, it is more than just a traditional concept of Christian revelation which has turned into a holiday. Have you mentioned that it is not an argumentative essay? If you know nothing about this kind of writing, argumentative essay sample will be very helpful.
Epiphany is extremely important event. It has the same weight as birth of Christ and His resurrection. Epiphany was an inevitable part of Jesus’ life. It was His duty to speak about a new commandment. Nowadays not all Christians celebrate this event as the holiday. But every pastor of Christian church mention during sermons the significance of revelation of the Christ. Maybe if you read the story of Jesus in the Bible, it would be easier for you to understand the importance of His life. Reading makes life better. Find more information on reading on this page: http://findwritingservice.com/blog/essay-on-reading-check-the-benefits
Epiphany as a sudden realization of something happens to everyone. This moment occurs in one’s life at least several times. Some of such realizations become very special. They are able to change the whole life. Epiphany points us vital aspects and things which we have not mentioned before. Suppressed by the heavy burden of conflicts, fear, and daily chores such significant things like feelings or even discoveries stay hidden from us. To understand what is epiphany in a common life we suggest you several examples.
1. The Law of Gravitation was passed in a very interesting way. A famous apple fell on the head of sir Newton. This story is a great example of epiphany. It shows that a person may seek something but it comes to him only after the moment of revelation which is always unexpected.
2. Imagine a drunk driver who usually avoids car accidents and for this reason does not stop drinking. Suddenly he realizes that it is a bad idea when his son or daughter gets numerous injuries because of the car accident after a drunk party.
3. Amy Tan is a brilliant writer with excellent English. Her mother came from China to America long ago, however it did not improve her pronunciation. Amy once realized that at home she usually spoke the same way as her mother while during the lectures she used perfect English. This epiphany was so strong that it inspired Amy to write an essay about mother tongue.
Surely, everyone of us has such moments. Usually, they influence our lives to some extent. Writers also have specific occasions. They make them to write about unexpected and interesting things like tips on editing college application online. Epiphany is a huge thing not only from Christian point of view. It plays a big role in the life of each person.
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